Why bother with a referral?

The level of sophistication in veterinary dentistry is expanding at a

rapid pace. An increasingly educated clientele expects to have access

to such advances for the medical care of their pets.


a b c

Crowns are becoming more common, and are used to protect vulnerable teeth. Photo (a) shows a metal crown mounted on a stone model. Photo (b) shows a radiograph of a crown cemented in place over a tooth having previously received root canal therapy. Photo (c) shows a crown placed over a previously damaged lower canine tooth. The crown margin is purposely maintained above the gum margin to minimize periodontal inflammation.

Ten percent of small animal patients likely have at least one endodontically exposed tooth. How are you guiding your clients?


This fractured left maxillary canine tooth has suffered pulp exposure. An explorer tip has been inserted into the pulp chamber. This tooth should receive root canal therapy or be extracted. Doing nothing is a poor choice.